In The Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels argued that the very proletariat and bourgeoisie classes that are responsible for oppressing the underclass are themselves the product of revolution and made by the same system that makes the underclass:
Modern industry has established the world market, for which the discovery of America paved the way. This market has given an immense development to commerce, to navigation, to communications by land. This development has, in its turn, reacted on the extension of industry, and in proportion as industry, commerce, navigation, railways extended, in the same proportion the bourgeoisie developed, increased its capital, and pushed into the background every class handed down from the Middle Ages. We see, therefore, how the modern bourgeoisie is itself the product of a long course of development, of a series of revolutions in the modes of production and exchange.
In The Way The World Works, Jude Wanniski argues that there is not some conspiracy of the rich upper classes to keep the lower classes in tow. Instead, the way capitalism, laissez-faire, and materialism operate remain the causes of the uneven distribution of resources (education, income, jobs, health care) among the classes. She argues that Marx and Engels actually admired laissez-faire, but found it so efficient that overproduction would result causing crashes and contractions in order to restore balance. She argues it is the nature of this kind of socio-economic structure that causes the underclass, not race, location, environment, etc., "The masses take the brunt of the contraction. They ultimately must react politically to defend themselves against this cycle of pleasure and pain. The proletariat takes matters into its own hands if only to smooth out the cycle and distribute both the pleasure and the pain more equally among the classes" (Wanniski 150). Yet, we see such efforts fail to eliminate or reduce the unequal distrib...
A Minority Underclass. (1969, December 31). In LotsofEssays.com. Retrieved 08:56, February 28, 2015, from https://www.collegetermpapers.com/viewpaper/1304126602.html