Lutherans share with Orthodox Christianity the Trinity and Person of Christ and Augustine's doctrine of Original Sin. The doctrine has been described as follows:
According to some authorities, he (Augustine) thought that original sin consisted in unruly concupiscence, especially sexual concupiscence . . . Others, however, acquit him of so crude and almost materialistic a conception, and maintain that he thought that original sin lay rather in the guilt or imputability of concupiscence, in so far as, all men being morally contained in Adam, all human nature being morally summed up in his, it follows that the whole race of men is not only subject to concupiscence, but also shares in the guilt attaching to the existence of concupiscence. As we have seen, the existence of concupiscence in Adam is to be imputed to him as a sin, since his rejection of integrity was sinful. St. Augustine, then, would have it that this guilt is shared by all men, and constitutes the original sin (Smith, 1950, p. 343).
Lutherans, furthermore, insisted on the primacy of free grace over merit, that right doctrine must proceed right worship, that salvation is a divine gift (justification by faith), that it must reject the primacy and infallibility of the Pope, and that it sees its Church as one, holy, catholic, apostolic (in the sense that all believers are a